dväpare bhagavän çyämaù
çré-vatsädibhir aìkaiç ca
(CC Adilila 3.39)
“In the Dväpara-yuga the Personality of Godhead appears in a blackish hue. He is dressed in yellow, He holds His own weapons, and He is decorated with the Kaustubha jewel and marks of Çrévatsa. This is how His symptoms are described.”
This is a verse from Çrémad-Bhägavatam (11.5.27), spoken by Saint Karabhäjana, one of the nine royal mystics who explained to King Nimi the different features of the Lord in different ages.
kali-yuge yuga-dharma—nämera pracära
tathi lägi’ péta-varëa caitanyävatära
(CC Adilila 3.40)
The religious practice for the Age of Kali is to broadcast the glories of the holy name. Only for this purpose has the Lord, in a yellow color, descended as Lord Caitanya.
In this Age of Kali the practical system of religion for everyone is the chanting of the name of Godhead. This was introduced in this age by Lord Caitanya. Bhakti-yoga actually begins with the chanting of the holy name, as confirmed by Madhväcärya in his commentary on the Muëòaka Upaniñad. He quotes this verse from the Näräyaëa-saàhitä:
dväparéyair janair viñëuù
païcarätrais tu kevalaiù
kalau tu näma-mätreëa
püjyate bhagavän hariù
“In the Dväpara-yuga people should worship Lord Viñëu only by the regulative principles of the Närada-païcarätra and other such authorized books. In the Age of Kali, however, people should simply chant the holy names of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” The Hare Kåñëa mantra is specifically mentioned in many Upaniñads, such as the Kali-santaraëa Upaniñad, where it is said:
Hare Kåñëa Hare Kåñëa
Kåñëa Kåñëa Hare Hare
Hare Räma Hare Räma
Räma Räma Hare Hare
iti ñoòaçakaà nämnäà
“After searching through all the Vedic literature, one cannot find a method of religion more sublime for this age than the chanting of Hare Kåñëa.”
tapta-hema-sama-känti, prakäëòa çaréra
nava-megha jini kaëöha-dhvani ye gambhéra
(CC Adilila 3.41)
The luster of His expansive body resembles molten gold. The deep sound of His voice conquers the thundering of newly assembled clouds.
dairghya-vistäre yei äpanära häta
cäri hasta haya ‘mahä-puruña’ vikhyäta
(CC Adilila 3.42)
One who measures four cubits in height and in breadth by his own hand is celebrated as a great personality.
(CC Adilila 3.44)
His arms are long enough to reach His knees, His eyes are just like lotus flowers, His nose is like a sesame flower, and His face is as beautiful as the moon.
çänta, dänta, kåñëa-bhakti-niñöhä-paräyaëa
bhakta-vatsala, suçéla, sarva-bhüte sama
(CC Adilila 3.45)
He is peaceful, self-controlled and fully devoted to the transcendental service of Lord Çré Kåñëa. He is affectionate toward His devotees, He is gentle, and He is equally disposed toward all living beings.
candanera aìgada-bälä, candana-bhüñaëa
nåtya-käle pari’ karena kåñëa-saìkértana
(CC Adilila 3.46)
He is decorated with sandalwood bangles and armlets and anointed with the pulp of sandalwood. He especially wears these decorations to dance in çré-kåñëa-saìkértana.
ei saba guëa laïä muni vaiçampäyana
sahasra-näme kaila täìra näma-gaëana
(CC Adilila 3.47)
Recording all these qualities of Lord Caitanya, the sage Vaiçampäyana included His name in the Viñëu-sahasra-näma.
dui lélä caitanyera—ädi ära çeña
dui léläya cäri cäri näma viçeña
(CC Adilila 3.48)
The pastimes of Lord Caitanya have two divisions—the early pastimes [ädi-lélä] and the later pastimes [çeña-lélä]. He has four names in each of these two léläs.
sannyäsa-kåc chamaù çänto
(CC Adilila 3.49)
“In His early pastimes He appears as a householder with a golden complexion. His limbs are beautiful, and His body, smeared with the pulp of sandalwood, seems like molten gold. In His later pastimes He accepts the sannyäsa order, and He is equipoised and peaceful. He is the highest abode of peace and devotion, for He silences the impersonalist nondevotees.”
This is a verse from the Mahäbhärata (Däna-dharma, Viñëu-sahasra-näma-stotra). In his commentary on the Viñëu-sahasra-näma, called the Nämärtha-sudhä, Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa, commenting upon this verse, asserts that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead according to the evidence of the Upaniñads. He explains that suvarëa-varëaù means a golden complexion. He also quotes the Vedic injunction yadä paçyaù paçyate rukma-varëaà kartäram éçaà puruñaà brahma-yonim (Muëòaka Up. 3.1.3). Rukma-varëaà kartäram éçam refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead as having a complexion the color of molten gold. Puruñam means the Supreme Lord, and brahma-yonim indicates that He is also the Supreme Brahman. This evidence, too, proves that Lord Caitanya is the Supreme Personality of Godhead Kåñëa. Another meaning of the description of the Lord as having a golden hue is that Lord Caitanya’s personality is as fascinating as gold is attractive. Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa has explained that the word varäìga means “exquisitely beautiful.”
Lord Caitanya accepted sannyäsa, leaving aside His householder life, to preach His mission. He has equanimity in different senses. First, He describes the confidential truth of the Personality of Godhead, and second, He satisfies everyone by knowledge and attachment to Kåñëa. He is peaceful because He renounces all topics not related to the service of Kåñëa. Çréla Baladeva Vidyäbhüñaëa has explained that the word niñöhä indicates His being rigidly fixed in chanting the holy name of Çré Kåñëa. Lord Caitanya subdued all disturbing opponents of devotional service, especially the monists, who are actually averse to the personal feature of the Supreme Lord.
vyakta kari’ bhägavate kahe bära bära
kali-yuge dharma—näma-saìkértana sära
(CC Adilila 3.50)
In Çrémad-Bhägavatam it is repeatedly and clearly said that the essence of religion in the Age of Kali is the chanting of the holy name of Kåñëa.
iti dväpara urv-éça
kaläv api yathä çåëu
(CC Adilila 3.51)
“O King, in this way people in Dväpara-yuga worshiped the Lord of the universe. In Kali-yuga they also worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead by the regulations of the revealed scriptures. Kindly now hear of that from me.
This verse is spoken by Saint Karabhäjana in Çrémad-Bhägavatam (11.5.31).
yajanti hi su-medhasaù
(CC Adilila 3.52)
“In the Age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the name of Kåñëa. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Kåñëa Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.”
Incarnations of Lord in different yugas
In these verses Krishnadasa Kaviraj Goswami is establishing Caitanya Mahaprabhu as a Yuga avatar and the chanting of the holy name of Krishna as the yuga dharma according to such authorized scriptures as the Upanisad, Mahabharat, Srimad Bhagavatam. In regards to these three colors Gargamuni describes in the Bhagavatam. He explains as quoted here, that “Krishna appeared in Satya-yuga in white form, he appears in the Treta-yuga in a red form, he is now appearing in the Dwapar-yuga in blackish form, and in the Kali-yuga he appears in golden form.”
Maharaj Nimi meeting Yogendras
In the teachings of Sri Narada Muni to Vasudev in eleventh canto, he cites the incident of when Maharaj Nimi who was the king of Mithila, he is inquiring from nine Yogendras “how to understand the various incarnations of the Lord?” as we know the nine Yogendras were the son’s of Rishabhdev. Lord Rishabhdev had one hundred sons. He instructed them all, in the fifth canto of Bhagavatam, teachings of Rishabhdev. His eldest son was Bharat Maharaj he became the king, nine of his sons became Sanyasis and they became very perfectly realized souls and traveled simply broadcasting the message of Sanatan Dharma throughout the world. So these nine Yogendra’s they approached maharaj Nimi and this great king what a perfect example he is setting, when he came following in the footsteps of such a great souls as Dasarath Maharaj, Yudhistir Maharaj. Maharaj Nimi, he submitted himself with great humility as the servant of these mendicants. Knowing that he may have been very wealthy, king is wealthy he has great armies, great jewelry, great treasury, everything is his. But such a king understands the real wealth is the wealth of renunciation, the wealth of transcendental realization, the wealth of love, love of Krishna that is true wealth and Maharaj Nimi he portrayed himself as a mendicant, as a beggar to these great kings.
Comparison between Sanyasi and King
A sanyasi is sometimes addressed as Maharaj, Maharaj means great king, king of what? Sanyasis are not allowed to have any possessions that he uses for his own personal selfish interest. A sanyasi has nothing in his name; a sanyasi has no social commitments as far as socially he is dead. He doesn’t have a family; he doesn’t have property, nothing this is sanyas. Where as a king is someone who is the ruler of the entire kingdom, taxes the citizens, armies under him, you know how much armies are worth just to maintain a military it’s the largest expenditure in any country in the world to maintain a military practically speaking and military is completely and exclusively under the command of the king. Today we have democracies, if the president wants to do something he has to get the permission of parliament and all these others but in Monarchy, what the king says is the absolute. He doesn’t have to go through senates, or House of Representatives, he doesn’t have to go through the ministers or parliaments or anything like that. These are all modern inventions, what a king says is done and the king only consults with the Brahmins he doesn’t bother consulting other politicians, he only, he consults with the Brahmins self realized souls people he trust know the scriptures, who can guide him what is the will of the God. So in this way the king is the absolute authority therefore he is factually the proprietor of whole kingdom and really what are taxes in a monarchy kingdom the king is the proprietor of everything you can’t own anything you pay taxes just like renting you are renting whatever you have you are just renting from the king. Imagine what the fabulous wealth king had in those, especially in previous ages often times the king he was the rules of the entire planet. King is addressing the sadhu as Maharaj great king what is that indicate, that indicates that one who has conquered his senses, one who has captured Krishna within his heart, one who has the wealth of renunciation and loving, and the wealth of love, love of god and detachment from this world that person it truly wealthy and compared to those riches the riches of the king have no value what so ever. Therefore although such a person from the external point of view they appear as beggars when they came before learned man like maharaj Nimi he becomes the beggar. They do not come to the king begging for favors I want land, I want wealth, give me this, give me that, no, when they come before the king, king become beggar before them that you have the real wealth , you have Krishna please give me Krishna. So therefore the great Acarya’s repeatedly explain that we should not come before politicians begging for something, politicians should come to sadhus begging for something. If we come to beg we only beg them to engage in Krishna’s service, we don’t ask them anything for ourselves.
Caitanya Mahaprabhu rejecting to see King Prataprudra
Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu, he specifically would not deal with the kings. Maharaj Prataprudra, he was so interested to see Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu and when Sarvabhauma Battacarya try to arranged a meeting Caitanya Mahaprabhu said to Sarvabhauma that I will not meet him and Sarvabhauma said he is a very great king, he is a very great devotee, he loves you with such, with all of his heart, he is always serving the devotees, he is the reservoir of good qualities. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu said that yes I am sure he is a reservoir of all good qualities but the fact is that the name king is attach to rest of his name makes him abominable therefore I will not see him. King means he is associating with sense gratification and material wealth and for sanyasi we are in the renounced order of life to associate with such a person he says not a sanyasi he said for one who is desire to cross over the ocean of birth and death to associate with people who are too much attach to wealth and sense gratification it is more deadly than drinking poison willingly. If you ever ask me again to meet this king I will leave this place you will not see me again. He was very strong, why? Because he wanted to set the example, he wanted to set an example, that one who is renounced everything of this world is not in need of favors of anybody in the material level. His only business is to give of course ultimately he only saw the king intimately and gave his personal darshan. He was moved, he was ultimately moved through two incidences king Prataprudra could not see him because of his position but at the Ratha Yatra king Prataprudra took of his kingly robes and put on the dress of a street sweeper and very sincerely swept the road as a bhangi before Lord Jagannath. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu saw although he has a big position as a king, before God he is accepting the position of the most, most, most menial servant, whoever we are if before God we do not have the attitude of menial servant we have no value in our spirituality, in the eyes of Lord or of the great saints. Whether we are Guru, whether we are sanyasi, whether we are king, whether we are wealthy industrialist, householder whatever our situation. Whether we are Brahmachari, whether we are Pujari, if we do not have the attitude of the menial, menial, menial servant before the Lord we cannot improve, we can attract the attention of Lord Caitanya.
Caitanya Mahaprabhu showered his mercy
When Prataprudra Maharaj was sweeping the streets sincerely taking the lowest menial service Lord Caitanya thought this is very nice and then Ramanada Rai came. Ramanada Rai was asked by Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu to resign from his government post when he told that, when I told to king Prataprudra that I wanted to resign because I wanted to be your servant he said oh you are so fortunate he will not see me, he will not give me such a fortune but if he is going to give you this fortune if that is his desire then you go if that’s what pleases you go I will give you full pension, full salary, full facility everything, you are completely relieved from all you are responsibilities go serve Lord Caitanya to your full satisfaction. So these are the two ways that this king attracted the heart of the Lord, one, is by accepting the most menial position before the Lord and two, by making a great sacrifice to please his devotee then Lord Caitanya decided in his heart I will show my mercy to king Prataprudra but not if he is comes as a king and Ramanada Rai knew this. So Ramanada Rai disguised Prataprudra as a mendicant as a penny less sadhu mendicant he put him in those robes and he had to present himself before the Lord in that way. Then he was allowed to massage the lotus feet of the Lord during the RathaYatra at Aithota garden. Mahaprabhu was very much felling fatigue because of his dancing throughout the day so he was lying in a secluded place and Ramananda Rai told, first he dressed the king just the way he should be, don’t go as a king, go as a beggar only then can you approach the Lord. These are the verses you should chant to bring him into transcendental ecstasy. He went and began to massage the feet, massage the Lord, he began to recites these verses, Caitanya Mahaprabhu was so pleased he began to embrace him with great love.
One should be humble
Similarly it is said in the bible by Lord Jesus that –it is easier to thread a camel through the eye of a needle than for a man attach to his wealth to enter into the kingdom of God. Jerusalem there was a wall around the whole city to protect it from intruders and enemies and there was one gate called the eye of the needle and camels had to enter through that gate and it was only this size. So whatever was on camel’s back they had to take off from his back and he had to get on his knees and crawl through. So in another words in order to enter into the kingdom of God whatever possessions we have, whatever ego we have, whatever accomplishments we have that’s all like load on our back, we have to remove it. We are nothing, we’ve accomplish nothing, we have no wealth, we have nothing and after removing everything from our back we have to get down on our knees, which is a very humble position and crawl we cannot walk into the kingdom of God a court palace you have to crawl on your hands and knees then you can go.
Maharaj Nimi begging for charity
So in the same way if we present our self as menial servant and more then that the menial servant of the servant only then the Lord will take our devotion seriously. So Maharaj Nimi is approaching the Navayogendra the nine sons of Rishabadev, that you are the maharajas I am a penny less beggar before you because all my wealth is illusory, all my wealth is like the will- O’-the-wisp it’s here today tomorrow gone but you have eternal wealth all my wealth can bring me no real satisfaction but your wealth can not only bring yourself eternal bliss but whoever you give charity of your wealth to everyone will be submerge to eternal happiness.
So Maharaj Nimi was begging please I am a beggar give me some charity give me the charity of transcendental knowledge that is the supreme opulence because that is what leads to love of God. (0:24:52.02 to 0:25.01) Required in what colors and forms does the Supreme Personality of God head appeared in each of the different ages and with what names and by what types of regulative principle is the Lord worshiped in human society. It has been clearly established in the purport in the previous verses the human life is spoiled if one does not surrender onto the supreme Lord and engage in his loving service. Therefore the king is now requesting the sages to give specific details about the worship of the Lord because this devotional process has clearly been described is the only practical means for delivering the conditional souls. One of the nine yogendras Sri Kharbhajana has spoken Sri Kharbhajana replied- in each of these four yugas or ages Krita or Satya, Treta, Dwapar and Kali Lord Kesava appears with various complexions, names, forms and is thus worship by various process. (SB 11.5.21)
kåte çuklaç catur-bähur
In Satya-yuga the Lord is white and four-armed, has matted locks and wears a garment of tree bark. He carries a black deerskin, a sacred thread, prayer beads and the rod and water pot of a brahmacäré.
Qualification of people of Satya-yuga
People in Satya-yuga are peaceful, non envious, friendly to every creature and steady in all situations. They worship the Supreme Personality by austere meditation and by internal and external sense control.
Names of Lord in different yugas
Here he is explaining the character, the physical characteristics and complexion of the Lord and the process that he teaches and now he explains the names. Now you may not recognize because Bhagvatam mainly deals in the first canto with the Lila avatars. These are the names in Satya-yuga, of the Yuga avatar who teaches us the process of meditation. In Satya-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Haàsa, Suparëa, Vaikuëöha, Dharma, Yogeçvara, Amala, Éçvara, Puruña, Avyakta and Paramätmä and Srila Bhakti Siddhant Sarswati Thakur has explained Lords various names in Satya-Yuga’s as follows . Many of you have questioned about this so you should listen carefully and take notes because when we discuss this to people how the Lord’s comes? This is one of the evidences of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu’s avatar is how the Lord is explained to come in different colors and different ages, we should know how he comes it is rarely discussed. So Bhakti Siddhanta is explained those who are self-realized know this supreme reality of the Personality of Godhead as Paramatmā, Those souls who are situated in the religious system of varṇāśrama glorify Him as the haḿsa. Persons absorbed in gross matter consider Him to be Suparṇa, “the beautifully winged”. Persons accustomed to wandering within this universe of subtle and gross matter chant His name Vaikuṇṭha. Persons deprived of the power of transcendental meditation (dhāraṇā), who are thus subject to falling from the path of religion, glorify Him as Dharma, or religion personified. Those who are forced to submit to the illusory modes of material nature and whose minds are uncontrolled and disturbed glorify Him as the most perfectly self-controlled Yogeśvara. Persons tainted by a mixture of the modes of passion and ignorance call Him Amala, or the uncontaminated. Persons devoid of potency call Him Īśvara, and those who consider themselves to be under His shelter chant His glories by the name Uttama Puruṣa. Those who know that this material manifestation is only temporary call Him Avyakta. In this way, in Satya-yuga Lord Vāsudeva appears in various four-armed transcendental forms, and the jīva souls worship Him, each by their own particular process of devotional service. Therefore the Supreme Lord has many different names. So it describe here by this by purport Jiva Goswami and Bhakti Sidhanta Sarasvati that in Satya-yuga the Lord appears in various four arm forms according to this description, appearing to different people in different classes by different names to teach this particular process of meditation. In Tretā-yuga the Lord appears with a red complexion. He has four arms, golden hair, and wears a triple belt representing initiation into each of the three Vedas. Embodying the knowledge of worship by sacrificial performance, which is contained in the Ṛg, Sāma and Yajur Vedas, His symbols are the ladle, spoon and other implements of sacrifice. In Tretā-yuga, those members of human society who are fixed in religiosity and are sincerely interested in achieving the Absolute Truth worship Lord Hari, who contains within Himself all the demigods. The Lord is worshiped by the rituals of sacrifice taught in the three Vedas. In Tretā-yuga the Lord is glorified by the names Viṣṇu, Yajña, Pṛśnigarbha, Sarvadeva, Urukrama, Vṛṣākapi, Jayanta and Urugāya. In Dvāpara-yuga the Supreme Personality of Godhead appears with a dark blue complexion, wearing yellow garments. The Lord’s transcendental body is marked in this incarnation with Śrīvatsa and other distinctive ornaments, and He manifests His personal weapons. My dear King, in Dvāpara-yuga men who desire to know the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is the supreme enjoyer, worship Him in the mood of honoring a great king, following the prescriptions of both the Vedas and tantras. O King, in this way people in Dvāpara-yuga glorified the Lord of the universe. In Kali-yuga also people worship the Supreme Personality of Godhead by following various regulations of the revealed scriptures. Now kindly hear of this from me. In the age of Kali, intelligent persons perform congregational chanting to worship the incarnation of Godhead who constantly sings the names of Kṛṣṇa. Although His complexion is not blackish, He is Kṛṣṇa Himself. He is accompanied by His associates, servants, weapons and confidential companions.
Importance of chanting Holy name
So through this reference we can understand the paramount importance which Sri Krishna das kaviraj Goswami is explaining of the chanting of the holy names of the Lord.
harer nama harer nama harer namaiva kevalam
kalau nasty eva nasty eva nasty eva gatir anyatha
In fact Srila Prabhupada has describe in many of his purport’s that really in our Krishna Consciousness movement we have no other business than chanting the holy name of the Lord, worshiping his beautiful form and serving his devotees in the process of chanting of holy names.
Everything can be attained in life. Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu wrote eight verses the Siksastakam and these eight verses which he personally penned with his own hands simply delaminating the importance chanting of holy name it is all-n-all. To achieve love of God in this age it is the all in all and everything else is simple to assist that process. Therefore we must have this faith. In order to chant properly the holy name we must have conviction and the faith, that simply by chanting the holy names of Krishna everything will be [0.35.9 – 0.35.10 (no audio}. If we do not have that faith we will not chant with the proper consciousness and we will have so many other ideas, so many other plans, so many other alternatives that we consider to be useful and to that extend we minimize the ultimate value of Harinam kirtan. Therefore hearing this literature is of top most importance because a devotee must hear and the most important part of reading the scriptures in the age of Kali-Yuga is simply to have the conviction and faith that all I need is Krishna’s name and to take shelter of Krishna’s name.
Are there any questions?
Question : so the three yuga which is describe that refer to the Satya-Yuga, Treta-Yuga and Kali-Yuga not Dwapar-yuga, Gargamuni predicts that the Lord is three Yugi, and what we got it from 10th canto
Answer : No he doesn’t say that Gargmuni is explaining in the four yugas he appears in four colors.
Question : but in that particular verse only three were mention
Answer : no he mention all four he mentions three how he has appeared and now he is appearing in blackish form. He has appeared previously in other three colors as Yugavatar and now he is appearing in his blackish form.
Question : So our movement in getting more emphasis on the devotional service also but devotee is more interested in chanting the holy name not so much interested in doing some devotional service what is this can you explain more
Answer : Krishna is not different than his name. He reveals himself as your approach him. Unless we surrender to the lotus feet of guru and sadhu our chanting of the holy name is like, one acarya has explained it is like blank bullets it makes the sound but no substance to it you know the real bullet when you shoot it, it will go and kill the enemy right? But a blank bullet will make a noise but nothing comes out it has no potency. So chanting the holy a name without a proper service attitude is like a blank bullet makes the sound of the name but the enemy of pride is not killed within the heart so therefore unless we performed devotional service in a menial humble attitude Krishna will never reveal himself to his name, why people farmers they plow their fields you know how work plowing their fields why don’t they just plant the seed and water it. Why they go through all the trouble of plowing their fields because they won’t grow unless they Plow it right? Factually watering the seed is the only way to make the seed grow we don’t plow the seed the watering process will not work. Similarly unless we develop the proper service attitude through the process of devotional service the watering process of chanting the holy name will not make the seed of love of god grow unless our heart becomes very soft in devotional service chanting will not have much effect.
So chanting is the only way to make that love grow a devotional service is what Krishna consciousness in proper attitude by which chant correctly chanting in a way that is pleasing to Krishna. We cannot (0.40) names Krishna that you have to reveal yourself to me. You chant the way your guru is telling you to chant sincerely, humbly, attentively, and you render services to the vaishnavas and then Krishna becomes pleased and then he reciprocates through his name with us otherwise he will not who is humbly serving as a menial servant of the Lord for him to chant one mantra will be more pleasing to Krishna than someone chanting all day along simply for his own salvation without that menial service attitude who does it on his own it is a fact. If a devotee is working very hard and submissively serving guru and sadhu and chant the sixteen rounds a day that chanting will have far more potency of attracting Krishna, than someone who is chanting sixty four or 3 lacs of names who is just doing it on his own. Quality is more important than quantity and our devotional service gives our chanting high quality.